# Source code for cleanlab.outlier

```
# Copyright (C) 2017-2022 Cleanlab Inc.
# This file is part of cleanlab.
#
# cleanlab is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published
# by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# cleanlab is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
# GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
# along with cleanlab. If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
"""
Methods for finding out-of-distribution examples in a dataset via scores that quantify how atypical each example is compared to the others.
The underlying algorithms are described in `this paper <https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.03061>`_.
"""
import warnings
import numpy as np
from cleanlab.count import get_confident_thresholds
from sklearn.neighbors import NearestNeighbors
from sklearn.exceptions import NotFittedError
from typing import Optional, Union, Tuple, Dict
from cleanlab.internal.label_quality_utils import (
_subtract_confident_thresholds,
get_normalized_entropy,
)
from cleanlab.internal.validation import assert_valid_inputs, labels_to_array
from cleanlab.typing import LabelLike
[docs]class OutOfDistribution:
"""
Provides scores to detect Out Of Distribution (OOD) examples that are outliers in a dataset.
Each example's OOD score lies in [0,1] with smaller values indicating examples that are less typical under the data distribution.
OOD scores may be estimated from either: numeric feature embeddings or predicted probabilities from a trained classifier.
To get indices of examples that are the most severe outliers, call :py:func:`find_top_issues <cleanlab.rank.find_top_issues>` function on the returned OOD scores.
Parameters
----------
params : dict, default = {}
Optional keyword arguments to control how this estimator is fit. Effect of arguments passed in depends on if
`OutOfDistribution` estimator will rely on `features` or `pred_probs`. These are stored as an instance attribute `self.params`.
If `features` is passed in during ``fit()``, `params` could contain following keys:
* knn: sklearn.neighbors.NearestNeighbors, default = None
Instantiated ``NearestNeighbors`` object that's been fitted on a dataset in the same feature space.
Note that the distance metric and `n_neighbors` is specified when instantiating this class.
You can also pass in a subclass of ``sklearn.neighbors.NearestNeighbors`` which allows you to use faster
approximate neighbor libraries as long as you wrap them behind the same sklearn API.
If you specify ``knn`` here, there is no need to later call ``fit()`` before calling ``score()``.
If ``knn = None``, then by default: ``knn = sklearn.neighbors.NearestNeighbors(n_neighbors=k, metric="cosine").fit(features)``
See: https://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/neighbors.html
* k : int, default=None
Optional number of neighbors to use when calculating outlier score (average distance to neighbors).
If `k` is not provided, then by default ``k = knn.n_neighbors`` or ``k = 10`` if ``knn is None``.
If an existing ``knn`` object is provided, you can still specify that outlier scores should use
a different value of `k` than originally used in the ``knn``,
as long as your specified value of `k` is smaller than the value originally used in ``knn``.
* t : int, default=1
Optional hyperparameter only for advanced users.
Controls transformation of distances between examples into similarity scores that lie in [0,1].
The transformation applied to distances `x` is ``exp(-x*t)``.
If you find your scores are all too close to 1, consider increasing `t`,
although the relative scores of examples will still have the same ranking across the dataset.
If `pred_probs` is passed in during ``fit()``, `params` could contain following keys:
* confident_thresholds: np.ndarray, default = None
An array of shape ``(K, )`` where K is the number of classes.
Confident threshold for a class j is the expected (average) "self-confidence" for that class.
If you specify `confident_thresholds` here, there is no need to later call ``fit()`` before calling ``score()``.
* adjust_pred_probs : bool, True
If True, account for class imbalance by adjusting predicted probabilities
via subtraction of class confident thresholds and renormalization.
If False, you do not have to pass in `labels` later to fit this OOD estimator.
See `Northcutt et al., 2021 <https://jair.org/index.php/jair/article/view/12125>`_.
* method : {"entropy", "least_confidence"}, default="entropy"
OOD scoring method.
Letting length-K vector ``P = pred_probs[i]`` denote the given predicted class-probabilities
for the i-th particular example, its OOD score can either be:
- ``'entropy'``: ``1 - sum_{j} P[j] * log(P[j]) / log(K)``
- ``'least_confidence'``: ``max(P)``
"""
OUTLIER_PARAMS = {"k", "t", "knn"}
OOD_PARAMS = {"confident_thresholds", "adjust_pred_probs", "method"}
DEFAULT_PARAM_DICT: Dict[Union[str, int, None], Union[str, int, None, np.ndarray]] = {
"k": None, # ood features param
"t": 1, # ood features param
"knn": None, # ood features param
"adjust_pred_probs": True, # ood pred_probs param
"method": "entropy", # ood pred_probs param
"confident_thresholds": None, # ood pred_probs param
}
def __init__(self, params: dict = {}):
self._assert_valid_params(params, self.DEFAULT_PARAM_DICT)
self.params = self.DEFAULT_PARAM_DICT
self.params = {**self.params, **params}
[docs] def fit_score(
self,
*,
features: Optional[np.ndarray] = None,
pred_probs: Optional[np.ndarray] = None,
labels: Optional[np.ndarray] = None,
verbose: bool = True,
) -> np.ndarray:
"""
Fits this estimator to a given dataset and returns out-of-distribution scores for the same dataset.
Scores lie in [0,1] with smaller values indicating examples that are less typical under the dataset
distribution (values near 0 indicate outliers). Exactly one of `features` or `pred_probs` needs to be passed
in to calculate scores.
If `features` are passed in a ``NearestNeighbors`` object is fit. If `pred_probs` and 'labels' are passed in a
`confident_thresholds` ``np.ndarray`` is fit. For details see :py:func:`fit
<cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit>`.
Parameters
----------
features : np.ndarray, optional
Feature array of shape ``(N, M)``, where N is the number of examples and M is the number of features used to represent each example.
For details, `features` in the same format expected by the :py:func:`fit <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit>` function.
pred_probs : np.ndarray, optional
An array of shape ``(N, K)`` of predicted class probabilities output by a trained classifier.
For details, `pred_probs` in the same format expected by the :py:func:`fit <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit>` function.
labels : array_like, optional
A discrete array of given class labels for the data of shape ``(N,)``.
For details, `labels` in the same format expected by the :py:func:`fit <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit>` function.
verbose : bool, default = True
Set to ``False`` to suppress all print statements.
Returns
-------
scores : np.ndarray
If `features` are passed in, `ood_features_scores` are returned.
If `pred_probs` are passed in, `ood_predictions_scores` are returned.
For details see return of :py:func:`score <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.scores>` function.
"""
scores = self._shared_fit(
features=features,
pred_probs=pred_probs,
labels=labels,
verbose=verbose,
)
if scores is None: # Fit was called on already fitted object so we just score vals instead
scores = self.score(features=features, pred_probs=pred_probs)
return scores
[docs] def fit(
self,
*,
features: Optional[np.ndarray] = None,
pred_probs: Optional[np.ndarray] = None,
labels: Optional[LabelLike] = None,
verbose: bool = True,
):
"""
Fits this estimator to a given dataset.
One of `features` or `pred_probs` must be specified.
If `features` are passed in, a ``NearestNeighbors`` object is fit.
If `pred_probs` and 'labels' are passed in, a `confident_thresholds` ``np.ndarray`` is fit.
For details see :py:class:`OutOfDistribution <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution>` documentation.
Parameters
----------
features : np.ndarray, optional
Feature array of shape ``(N, M)``, where N is the number of examples and M is the number of features used to represent each example.
All features should be **numeric**. For less structured data (eg. images, text, categorical values, ...), you should provide
vector embeddings to represent each example (eg. extracted from some pretrained neural network).
pred_probs : np.ndarray, optional
An array of shape ``(N, K)`` of model-predicted probabilities,
``P(label=k|x)``. Each row of this matrix corresponds
to an example `x` and contains the model-predicted probabilities that
`x` belongs to each possible class, for each of the K classes. The
columns must be ordered such that these probabilities correspond to
class 0, 1, ..., K-1.
labels : array_like, optional
A discrete vector of given labels for the data of shape ``(N,)``. Supported `array_like` types include: ``np.ndarray`` or ``list``.
*Format requirements*: for dataset with K classes, labels must be in 0, 1, ..., K-1.
All the classes (0, 1, ..., and K-1) MUST be present in ``labels``, such that: ``len(set(labels)) == pred_probs.shape[1]``
If ``params["adjust_confident_thresholds"]`` was previously set to ``False``, you do not have to pass in `labels`.
Note: multi-label classification is not supported by this method, each example must belong to a single class, e.g. ``labels = np.ndarray([1,0,2,1,1,0...])``.
verbose : bool, default = True
Set to ``False`` to suppress all print statements.
"""
_ = self._shared_fit(
features=features,
pred_probs=pred_probs,
labels=labels,
verbose=verbose,
)
[docs] def score(
self, *, features: Optional[np.ndarray] = None, pred_probs: Optional[np.ndarray] = None
) -> np.ndarray:
"""
Uses fitted estimator and passed in `features` or `pred_probs` to calculate out-of-distribution scores for a dataset.
Score for each example corresponds to the likelihood this example stems from the same distribution as the dataset previously specified in ``fit()`` (i.e. is not an outlier).
If `features` are passed, returns OOD score for each example based on its feature values.
If `pred_probs` are passed, returns OOD score for each example based on classifier's probabilistic predictions.
You may have to previously call ``fit()`` or call ``fit_score()`` instead.
Parameters
----------
features : np.ndarray, optional
Feature array of shape ``(N, M)``, where N is the number of examples and M is the number of features used to represent each example.
For details, see `features` in :py:func:`fit <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit>` function.
pred_probs : np.ndarray, optional
An array of shape ``(N, K)`` of predicted class probabilities output by a trained classifier.
For details, see `pred_probs` in :py:func:`fit <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit>` function.
Returns
-------
scores : np.ndarray
Scores lie in [0,1] with smaller values indicating examples that are less typical under the dataset distribution
(values near 0 indicate outliers).
If `features` are passed, `ood_features_scores` are returned.
The score is based on the average distance between the example and its K nearest neighbors in the dataset
(in feature space).
If `pred_probs` are passed, `ood_predictions_scores` are returned.
The score is based on the uncertainty in the classifier's predicted probabilities.
"""
self._assert_valid_inputs(features, pred_probs)
if features is not None:
if self.params["knn"] is None:
raise ValueError(
f"OOD estimator needs to be fit on features first. Call `fit()` or `fit_scores()` before this function."
)
else:
scores, _ = _get_ood_features_scores(
features, **self._get_params(self.OUTLIER_PARAMS)
)
if pred_probs is not None:
if self.params["confident_thresholds"] is None and self.params["adjust_pred_probs"]:
raise ValueError(
f"OOD estimator needs to be fit on pred_probs first since params['adjust_pred_probs']=True. Call `fit()` or `fit_scores()` before this function."
)
else:
scores, _ = _get_ood_predictions_scores(
pred_probs, **self._get_params(self.OOD_PARAMS)
)
return scores
def _get_params(self, param_keys) -> dict:
"""
Helper method to get function specific dictionary of parameters (i.e. only those in param_keys).
"""
return {k: v for k, v in self.params.items() if k in param_keys}
@staticmethod
def _assert_valid_params(params, param_keys):
"""
Helper method to check passed in params valid and get list of parameters in param that are not in param_keys.
"""
if len(params) > 0:
wrong_params = list(set(params.keys()).difference(set(param_keys)))
if len(wrong_params) > 0:
raise ValueError(
f"Passed in params dict can only contain {param_keys}. Remove {wrong_params} from params dict."
)
@staticmethod
def _assert_valid_inputs(features, pred_probs):
"""
Helper method to check features and pred_prob inputs are valid. Throws error if not.
"""
if features is None and pred_probs is None:
raise ValueError(
f"Not enough information to compute scores. Pass in either features or pred_probs."
)
if features is not None and pred_probs is not None:
raise ValueError(
f"Cannot fit to OOD Estimator to both features and pred_probs. Pass in either one or the other."
)
if features is not None and len(features.shape) != 2:
raise ValueError(
f"Feature array needs to be of shape (N, M), where N is the number of examples and M is the "
f"number of features used to represent each example. "
)
def _shared_fit(
self,
*,
features: Optional[np.ndarray] = None,
pred_probs: Optional[np.ndarray] = None,
labels: Optional[LabelLike] = None,
verbose: bool = True,
) -> Optional[np.ndarray]:
"""
Shared fit functionality between ``fit()`` and ``fit_score()``.
For details, refer to :py:func:`fit <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit>`
or :py:func:`fit_score <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit_score>`.
"""
self._assert_valid_inputs(features, pred_probs)
scores = None # If none scores are returned, fit was skipped
if features is not None:
if self.params["knn"] is not None:
# No fitting twice if knn object already fit
warnings.warn(
f"A KNN estimator has previously already been fit, call score() to apply it to data, or create a new OutOfDistribution object to fit a different estimator.",
UserWarning,
)
else:
# Get ood features scores
if verbose:
print("Fitting OOD estimator based on provided features ...")
scores, knn = _get_ood_features_scores(
features, **self._get_params(self.OUTLIER_PARAMS)
)
self.params["knn"] = knn
if pred_probs is not None:
if self.params["confident_thresholds"] is not None:
# No fitting twice if confident_thresholds object already fit
warnings.warn(
f"Confident thresholds have previously already been fit, call score() to apply them to data, or create a new OutOfDistribution object to fit a different estimator.",
UserWarning,
)
else:
# Get ood predictions scores
if verbose:
print("Fitting OOD estimator based on provided pred_probs ...")
scores, confident_thresholds = _get_ood_predictions_scores(
pred_probs,
labels=labels,
**self._get_params(self.OOD_PARAMS),
)
if confident_thresholds is None:
warnings.warn(
f"No estimates need to be be fit under the provided params, so you could directly call "
f"score() as an alternative.",
UserWarning,
)
else:
self.params["confident_thresholds"] = confident_thresholds
return scores
def _get_ood_features_scores(
features: Optional[np.ndarray] = None,
knn: Optional[NearestNeighbors] = None,
k: Optional[int] = None,
t: int = 1,
) -> Tuple[np.ndarray, Optional[NearestNeighbors]]:
"""Returns an outlier score for each example based on its feature values which is computed inversely proportional
to the average distance between this example and its K nearest neighbors (in feature space).
Parameters
----------
features : np.ndarray
Feature array of shape ``(N, M)``, where N is the number of examples and M is the number of features used to represent each example.
For details, `features` in the same format expected by the :py:func:`fit <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit>` function.
knn : sklearn.neighbors.NearestNeighbors, default = None
For details, see key `knn` in the params dict arg of :py:class:`OutOfDistribution <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution>`.
k : int, default=None
Optional number of neighbors to use when calculating outlier score (average distance to neighbors).
For details, see key `k` in the params dict arg of :py:class:`OutOfDistribution <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution>`.
t : int, default=1
Controls transformation of distances between examples into similarity scores that lie in [0,1].
For details, see key `t` in the params dict arg of :py:class:`OutOfDistribution <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution>`.
Returns
-------
ood_features_scores : Tuple[np.ndarray, Optional[NearestNeighbors]]
Return a tuple whose first element is array of `ood_features_scores` and second is a `knn` Estimator object.
"""
DEFAULT_K = 10
# fit skip over (if knn is not None) then skipping fit and suggest score else fit.
if knn is None: # setup default KNN estimator
# Make sure both knn and features are not None
if features is None:
raise ValueError(
f"Both knn and features arguments cannot be None at the same time. Not enough information to compute outlier scores."
)
if k is None:
k = DEFAULT_K # use default when knn and k are both None
if k > len(features): # Ensure number of neighbors less than number of examples
raise ValueError(
f"Number of nearest neighbors k={k} cannot exceed the number of examples N={len(features)} passed into the estimator (knn)."
)
knn = NearestNeighbors(n_neighbors=k, metric="cosine").fit(features)
features = None # features should be None in knn.kneighbors(features) to avoid counting duplicate data points
elif k is None:
k = knn.n_neighbors
max_k = knn.n_neighbors # number of neighbors previously used in NearestNeighbors object
if k > max_k: # if k provided is too high, use max possible number of nearest neighbors
warnings.warn(
f"Chosen k={k} cannot be greater than n_neighbors={max_k} which was used when fitting "
f"NearestNeighbors object! Value of k changed to k={max_k}.",
UserWarning,
)
k = max_k
# Fit knn estimator on the features if a non-fitted estimator is passed in
try:
knn.kneighbors(features)
except NotFittedError as e:
knn.fit(features)
# Get distances to k-nearest neighbors Note that the knn object contains the specification of distance metric
# and n_neighbors (k value) If our query set of features matches the training set used to fit knn, the nearest
# neighbor of each point is the point itself, at a distance of zero.
distances, _ = knn.kneighbors(features)
# Calculate average distance to k-nearest neighbors
avg_knn_distances = distances[:, :k].mean(axis=1)
# Map ood_features_scores to range 0-1 with 0 = most concerning
ood_features_scores: np.ndarray = np.exp(-1 * avg_knn_distances * t)
return (ood_features_scores, knn)
def _get_ood_predictions_scores(
pred_probs: np.ndarray,
*,
labels: Optional[LabelLike] = None,
confident_thresholds: Optional[np.ndarray] = None,
adjust_pred_probs: bool = True,
method: str = "entropy",
) -> Tuple[np.ndarray, Optional[np.ndarray]]:
"""Returns an OOD (out of distribution) score for each example based on it pred_prob values.
Parameters
----------
pred_probs : np.ndarray
An array of shape ``(N, K)`` of model-predicted probabilities,
`pred_probs` in the same format expected by the :py:func:`fit <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit>` function.
confident_thresholds : np.ndarray, default = None
For details, see key `confident_thresholds` in the params dict arg of :py:class:`OutOfDistribution <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution>`.
labels : array_like, optional
`labels` in the same format expected by the :py:func:`fit <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution.fit>` function.
adjust_pred_probs : bool, True
Account for class imbalance in the label-quality scoring.
For details, see key `adjust_pred_probs` in the params dict arg of :py:class:`OutOfDistribution <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution>`.
method : {"entropy", "least_confidence"}, default="entropy"
OOD scoring method.
For details see key `method` in the params dict arg of :py:class:`OutOfDistribution <cleanlab.outlier.OutOfDistribution>`.
Returns
-------
ood_predictions_scores : Tuple[np.ndarray, Optional[np.ndarray]]
Returns a tuple. First element is array of `ood_predictions_scores` and second is an np.ndarray of `confident_thresholds` or None is 'confident_thresholds' is not calculated.
"""
valid_methods = [
"entropy",
"least_confidence",
]
if (confident_thresholds is not None or labels is not None) and not adjust_pred_probs:
warnings.warn(
f"OOD scores are not adjusted with confident thresholds. If scores need to be adjusted set "
f"params['adjusted_pred_probs'] = True. Otherwise passing in confident_thresholds and/or labels does not change "
f"score calculation.",
UserWarning,
)
if adjust_pred_probs:
if confident_thresholds is None:
if labels is None:
raise ValueError(
f"Cannot calculate adjust_pred_probs without labels. Either pass in labels parameter or set "
f"params['adjusted_pred_probs'] = False. "
)
else:
labels = labels_to_array(labels)
assert_valid_inputs(X=None, y=labels, pred_probs=pred_probs, multi_label=False)
confident_thresholds = get_confident_thresholds(
labels, pred_probs, multi_label=False
)
pred_probs = _subtract_confident_thresholds(
None, pred_probs, multi_label=False, confident_thresholds=confident_thresholds
)
# Scores are flipped so ood scores are closer to 0. Scores reflect confidence example is in-distribution.
if method == "entropy":
ood_predictions_scores = 1.0 - get_normalized_entropy(pred_probs)
elif method == "least_confidence":
ood_predictions_scores = pred_probs.max(axis=1)
else:
raise ValueError(
f"""
{method} is not a valid OOD scoring method!
Please choose a valid scoring_method: {valid_methods}
"""
)
return (
ood_predictions_scores,
confident_thresholds,
)
```